Research and Articles

IPEN Featured Articles Online

Links to placenta encapsulation research

Placentophagy Survey (Selander, Cantor, Young and Benyshek 2013): A Survey of Self-Reported Motivations and Experiences Associated with Placenta Consumption By Jodi Selander a , Allison Cantor b , Sharon M. Young c & Daniel C.  Benyshek c.

Does eating placenta offer postpartum benefits? The British Journal of Midwives July 2012;  Written by Michelle Beacock – Student Midwife, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, Lancashire and NCT Antenatal Teacher.

Fire Hypothesis (Young, Benyshek and Lienard 2012)

In Search of Placentophagy (Young and Benyshek 2010)


Placentophagies in Humans and nonhuman mammals
By Kristal, DiPirro, Thompson.


Pathology of the Human Placenta 
By Kurt Benirschke, Peter Kaufmann.

Human placenta as a ‘dual’ biomarker for monitoring fetal and maternal environment with special reference to potentially toxic trace elements.
Part 3: Toxic trace elements in placenta and placenta as a biomarker for these elements  G.V. Iyengar A. Rapp.

Selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in human breast milk, in placenta, maternal blood, and the blood of the newborn
P. Schramel, S. Hasse and J. Ovcar-Pavlu.

Stem Cells from Human Placenta can cure Diseases – Video from Oakland Hospital, USA

Stem Cells from Placenta show potential in treating Heart Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and More
BY Neal Ungerleider Tuesday 29th March 2011.

Placenta Stem Cells Successfully Treat Peripheral Artery Disease in Duke University Patient 14th October 2010.

Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone suppression during the postpartum period: implications for the increase in psychiatric manifestations at this time
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol 81, 1912-1917, Copyright © 1996 by Endocrine Society. Study showing low CRH Hormone levels post-birth – CRH (stress reducer hormone – found in high levels in the placenta).

Wound Healing Activity of Human Placental Extract in Rats
Acta Pharmacol Sin, 22nd December 2001  –  Finding human placental extract has potent power of inducing collagenous growth indicating its proficiency in wound healing.

The Impact of Fatigue on the Development of Postpartum Depression
Elizabeth J. Corwin, Jean Brownstead, Nichole Barton, Starlet Heckard, and Karen Morin.

Have we forgotten the significance of postpartum iron deficiency?
Lisa M. Bodnar, PhD, MPH, RD,a,* Mary E. Cogswell, DrPH, RN,b Thad McDonald, MDc.

Mark B. Kristal, Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA Received 4th January 1991.

Placentophagia: A Biobehavioral Enigma
(or De gustibus non disputandum est) MARK B. KRISTAL Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, NY 14226 Received 2nd February 1980.

Articles from Journals, Websites or Blogs

Placenta in Chinese Herbal Medicine

Preparations from the placenta in veterinary medicine. ARTICLE.  Placenta product marketed for veterinary distribution: emulsified denatured placenta, prepared from human placenta tissue after removal of the amnion, chorion and umbilical cord for the purpose of injection in livestock.

The Bridge of Life: Options for Placentas
Written by British midwife Kelly Graff; Published by Midwifery Today 2008.

Placentophagia: Benefits of Eating the Placenta
Published June 28, 2007 by: Amy Weekley

Placenta Recipes – Mums 35 Plus

Placenta consumption  Written for BabyCenter Singapore Approved by the BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board

Medicinal Uses of the Placenta  The website is provided courtesy of
Ronnie Falcao, LM MS, a homebirth midwife in Mountain View, CA

Placenta: The Gift of Life BOOK

The Tree of Life  
Hollywood Birth Centre Newsletter August 2009.

The Amazing Placenta
By , Guide

I’m Going to Eat My Placenta
posted by Kiri Westby 28th June 2010 5:08 pm.

Books that recommend the use of the placenta post-birth:


” The fifth major cause of iron depletion in Gyna sapiens is not so obvious as the previous four but nontheless significantly increases her risk of developing an iron-deficiency anemia.  The transfer and loss of iron associated with gestation and brith exist to a lesser degree in other mammalian mothers but still pose a problem.  To counter it, Mother Nature equipped females of the other mammalian species with a vital instinct-an urgent hunger driving them to consume their offspring’s placenta.  A plump souffle of meaty iron, amino acids and essential fats, the placenta is the consummate first meal a mother should partake of immediately after the ordeal of delivery. It is the perfect replacement for the very nutrients she lost just minutes earlier, because a freshly expelled placenta contains the iron equivalent of one to two blood transfusions. Gyna sapiens have lost her craving for this delicacy.  Our closest relatives, chimpanzees, dine with gusto on their afterbirth immediately after delivering their infants.”   pg. 28-29.

  • BIRTH – THE SUPRISING HISTORY OF HOW WE ARE BORN                                 Author – Tina Cassidy

“In the 1970’s, placentaphagy became part of radical home bith customs, particularly in the San Franscisco area.  One 1980 estimate in Scient Digest said 5 percent of such West Coast deliveries involved sonsuming the afterbirth; the East Cost rate among home-birthers was about 1 or 2 percent.  it is unclear how many of the placentaphagists were vegetarians, but probably many wree.  They considered the placenta to be sacred, and, of course, because the organ gave life and nothing was killed to put it on the table, it was considered an honor to consume it.”    pg. 218

  • PLACENTA: THE GIFT OF LIFE                                                                     Author – Cornelia Enning

“Throughout the world generations have passed down knowledge of how ingesting placenta helps a mother’s postpartum recovery.  Women using placenta remedies after birth feel stronger, are happier and can breastfeed more easily….Many conditions during birth, the postpartum period and nursing would not arise if we returned to the old custom of applying placenta remedies.”